World Wide Web

comprises software (Web server and browser) and data (Web sites).

 Internet Protocol (IP) Addresses:

–  Every node has a unique numeric address

–  Form: 32-bit binary number

–  New standard, IPv6, has 128 bits (1998)

–  Organizations are assigned groups of IPs for their computers

–  Domain names

–  Form: host-name. domain-names

–  First domain is the smallest (Google)

–  Last domain specifies the type of organization (.com)

–  Fully qualified domain name – the host name and all of the domain names

–  DNS servers – convert fully qualified domain names to IPs


Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the communication protocol used by the Internet to transfer hypertext documents.

 A protocol to transfer hypertext requests and information between servers and browsers

Hypertext is text, displayed on a computer, with references (hyperlinks) to

 other text that the reader can immediately follow, usually by a mouse HTTP is behind every request for a web document or graph, every click of a hypertext link, and every submission of a form.

HTTP specifies how clients request data, and how servers respond to these requests.

The client makes a request for a given page and the server is responsible for finding it and returning it to the clie

The browser connects and requests a page from the server.

The server reads the page from the file system and sends it to the client and then terminates the connection

HTTP Transactions

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