language modeling

Language modeling (LM) is the use of various statistical and probabilistic techniques to determine the probability of a given sequence of words occurring in a sentence. Language models analyze bodies of text data to provide a basis for their word predictions. They are used in natural language processing (NLP) applications, particularly ones that generate text as an output. Some of these applications include , machine translation and question answering.

How language modeling works

Language models determine word probability by analyzing text data. They interpret this data by feeding it through an algorithm that establishes rules for context in natural language. Then, the model applies these rules in language tasks to accurately predict or produce new sentences. The model essentially learns the features and characteristics of basic language and uses those features to understand new phrases.

There are several different probabilistic approaches to modeling language, which vary depending on the purpose of the language model. From a technical perspective, the various types differ by the amount of text data they analyze and the math they use to analyze it. For example, a language model designed to generate sentences for an automated Twitter bot may use different math and analyze text data in a different way than a language model designed for determining the likelihood of a search query.

Some common statistical language modeling types are:

·         N-gram. N-grams are a relatively simple approach to language models. They create a probability distribution for a sequence of The can be any number, and defines the size of the “gram”, or sequence of words being assigned a probability. For example, if = 5, a gram might look like this: “can you please call me.” The model then assigns probabilities using sequences of n size. Basically, can be thought of as the amount of context the model is told to consider. Some types of n-grams are unigrams, bigrams, trigrams and so on.

·         Unigram. The unigram is the simplest type of language model. It doesn’t look at any conditioning context in its calculations. It evaluates each word or term independently. Unigram models commonly handle language processing tasks such as information retrieval. The unigram is the foundation of a more specific model variant called the query likelihood model, which uses information retrieval to examine a pool of documents and match the most relevant one to a specific query.

·         Bidirectional. Unlike n-gram models, which analyze text in one direction (backwards), bidirectional models analyze text in both directions, backwards and forwards. These models can predict any word in a sentence or body of text by using every other word in the text. Examining text bidirectionally increases result accuracy. This type is often utilized in machine learning and speech generation applications. For example, Google uses a bidirectional model to process search queries.

·         Exponential. Also known as maximum entropy models, this type is more complex than n-grams. Simply put, the model evaluates text using an equation that combines feature functions and n-grams. Basically, this type specifies features and parameters of the desired results, and unlike n-grams, leaves analysis parameters more ambiguous — it doesn’t specify individual gram sizes, for example. The model is based on the principle of entropy, which states that the probability distribution with the most entropy is the best choice. In other words, the model with the most chaos, and least room for assumptions, is the most accurate. Exponential models are designed maximize cross entropy, which minimizes the amount statistical assumptions that can be made. This enables users to better trust the results they get from these models.

·         Continuous space. This type of model represents words as a non-linear combination of weights in a neural network. The process of assigning a weight to a word is also known as word embedding. This type becomes especially useful as data sets get increasingly large, because larger datasets often include more unique words. The presence of a lot of unique or rarely used words can cause problems for linear model like an n-gram. This is because the amount of possible word sequences increases, and the patterns that inform results become weaker. By weighting words in a non-linear, distributed way, this model can “learn” to approximate words and therefore not be misled by any unknown values. Its “understanding” of a given word is not as tightly tethered to the immediate surrounding words as it is in n-gram models.

The models listed above are more general statistical approaches from which more specific variant language models are derived. For example, as mentioned in the n-gram description, the query likelihood model is a more specific or specialized model that uses the n-gram approach. Model types may be used in conjunction with one another.

The models listed also vary significantly in complexity. Broadly speaking, more complex language models are better at NLP tasks, because language itself is extremely complex and always evolving. Therefore, an exponential model or continuous space model might be better than an n-gram for NLP tasks, because they are designed to account for ambiguity and variation in language.

A good language model should also be able to process long-term dependencies, handling words that may derive their meaning from other words that occur in far-away, disparate parts of the text. An LM should be able to understand when a word is referencing another word from a long distance, as opposed to always relying on proximal words within a certain fixed history. This requires a more complex model.

Importance of language modeling

Language modeling is crucial in modern NLP applications. It is the reason that machines can understand qualitative information. Each language model type, in one way or another, turns qualitative information into quantitative information. This allows people to communicate with machines as they do with each other to a limited extent.

It is used directly in a variety of industries including tech, finance, healthcare, transportation, legal, military and government. Additionally, it’s likely most people reading this have interacted with a language model in some way at some point in the day, whether it be through Google search, an autocomplete text function or engaging with a voice assistant.

The roots of language modeling as it exists today can be traced back to 1948. That year, Claude Shannon published a paper titled “A Mathematical Theory of Communication.” In it, he detailed the use of a stochastic model called the Markov chain to create a statistical model for the sequences of letters in English text. This paper had a large impact on the telecommunications industry, laid the groundwork for information theory and language modeling. The Markov model is still used today, and n-grams specifically are tied very closely to the concept.

Uses and examples of language modeling

Language models are the backbone of natural language processing (NLP). Below are some NLP tasks that use language modeling, what they mean, and some applications of those tasks:

·         Speech recognition — involves a machine being able to process speech audio. This is commonly used by voice assistants like Siri and Alexa.

·         Machine translation — involves the translation of one language to another by a machine. Google Translate and Microsoft Translator are two programs that do this. SDL Government is another, which is used to translate foreign social media feeds in real time for the U.S. government.

·         Parts-of-speech tagging — involves the markup and categorization of words by certain grammatical characteristics. This is utilized in the study of linguistics, first and perhaps most famously in the study of the Brown Corpus, a body of composed of random English prose that was designed to be studied by computers. This corpus has been used to train several important language models, including one used by Google to improve search quality.

·         Parsing — involves analysis of any string of data or sentence that conforms to formal grammar and syntax rules. In language modeling, this may take the form of sentence diagrams that depict each word’s relationship to the others. Spell checking applications use language modeling and parsing.

·         Sentiment analysis — involves determining the sentiment behind a given phrase. Specifically, it can be used to understand opinions and attitudes expressed in a text. Businesses can use this to analyze product reviews or general posts about their product, as well as analyze internal data like employee surveys and customer support chats. Some services that provide sentiment analysis tools are Repustate and Hubspot’s ServiceHub. Google’s NLP tool — called Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) — is also used for sentiment analysis.

·         Optical character recognition — involves the use of a machine to convert images of text into machine encoded text. The image may be a scanned document or document photo, or a photo with text somewhere in it — on a sign, for example. It is often used in data entry when processing old paper records that need to be digitized. In can also be used to analyze and identify handwriting samples.

·         Information retrieval — involves searching in a document for information, searching for documents in general, and searching for metadata that corresponds to a document. Web browsers are the most common information retrieval applications.

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