·   The first version of HTML was created using the Standard Generalized Mark up Language (SGML).

 ·  In the early years of HTML, Web developers were free to define and modify HTML in whatever ways they thought best.

 ·  Competing browsers introduced some differences in the language. The changes were called extensions.

 ·  A group of Web developers, programmers, and authors called the World Wide Web Consortium, or the WC3, created a set of standards or specifications that all browser manufacturers were to follow.

 · The WC3has no enforcement power.

 · The recommendations of the WC3are usually followed since a uniform approach to Web page creation is beneficial to everyone.

Comparison of HTML versions:

HTML Basics:

HTML is primarily composed of two types of markup:

• Elements or tags

o <html></html>

• Attributes that modify an element

HTML Elements

• Elements are the fundamental building blocks of HTML.

• They are the tags that tell the browser what the enclosed text is.

HTML Tags:

 • Container Tags

o <Begin formatting>some text</End formatting> o For example: <B>some bold text</B>

<H1>some heading </H1>

• Empty Element Tags

o For example <HR> <BR>

• Comment Tag

o <!– Hi, I’m a comment. –>

o Use them document complicated layouts!

• Case insensitive

• Unrecognised tags are simply ignored by browser!!

• Container tags must be nested!!

 •   As a text document, your HTML in Notepad will contain elements, such as headers, titles, paragraphs, etc.

 • These elements must be denoted in your script, which is done using tags

• HTML tags consist of a left angle bracket (<), a name, and a right angle bracket(>)

• For example: <title>

 •  Tags must also close. To do so, you incorporate a slash (/). A starting and ending tag would be: <title> </title>.


 • You can add attributes to tags to enhance your page.

 •  Added attributes go inside the brackets of the opening tag(example: <p align=center> would center the paragraph)

About HTML file Structure:

·         HTML files .htm or .html extensions

·         Name your files to describe their functionality file name of your home page should be index.html

 Common Tags (Elements):

· Always include the <HTML></HTML> tags

· Comments placed inside <!––> tags

· HTML documents

HEAD section.

o  Info about the document.

o Info in header not generally rendered in display window. o TITLE element names your Web page.

BODY section

Page content

Includes text, images, links, forms, etc.

Elements include backgrounds, link colors and font faces element forms a paragraph, blank line before and after

Structure of HTML Tag (Element) Alignment

Text Styling 

• Underline style<U></U>

• Align elements with ALIGN attributerightleft or center

• Close nested tags in the reverse order from which they were opened

• Emphasis (italics) style<EM></EM>

• Strong (bold) style<STRONG></STRONG>

• <B> and <I> tags deprecated Overstep boundary between content and presentation

• Logical Styles:

o <EM>, <STRONG> a add emphasis to text

o <BIG>, <SMALL> a increase or decrease text size o <SUB>, <SUP> a subscript or superscript

• Physical styles:

o <B>, <I>, <U> a Bold, Italics, and Underline text

o <FONT SIZE=# FACE= “name” COLOR=“colorName or #rgb” > o E.g., <FONT SIZE=+2 FACE = “arial” COLOR = “darkblue”>

eXtensible Mark up Language (XHTML) : 

• To describe the general form and layout of documents

• An XHTML document is a mix of content and controls 

•   In XHTML tag names, attributes, and values are case sensitive and values must be enclosed by double quotes. 

• In XHTML all elements must have both beginning and ending tags.

• Controls are tags and their attributes

 o Tags often delimit content and specify something about how the content o should be arranged in the document.

 o Attributes provide additional information about the content of a tag.

• Tools for creating XHTML documents

 o XHTML editors – make document creation easier o Shortcuts to typing tag names, spell-checker,


• Plug ins

o Integrated into tools like word processors,

o effectively converting them to WYSIWYG o XHTML editors

• Filters

o Convert documents in other formats to XHTML

Advantages of both filters and plug-ins:

• Existing documents produced with other tools

• can be converted to XHTML documents

• Use a tool you already know to produce XHTML

Disadvantages of both filters and plug-ins:

• XHTML output of both is not perfect – must be fine tuned

• XHTML may be non-standard

• You have two versions of the document, which are difficult to synchronize

Relative URL

 HTML Link: 

To create a link to a resource identifiable by a URL o href: specify a URL of the target resource

o target: specify where to display the target document

e.g.: <a href=”index.htm” target=”_blank”>Home</a> Open the document “index.htm” in a new browser window

Can also be used to create an anchor within a document o name: specify the anchor name

e.g.: <a name=”chap1″></a><h2>Chapter 1</h2> The above anchor can be referred to in a URL as

<a href=”http://host/file.html#chap1″>Chapter 1</a>

URL (Uniform Resource Locator) in HTML: 

URL is used to create a link in a web document.

Two Types of URL:

1. Absolute URL

• Absolute URL contains all the information necessary to identify files on the internet (Example: in postal service, for sending letter to the destination it necessary to have full information like, name, address, city etc.,)

•   Likewise, an absolute URL contains the protocol, hostname, filename, which are all essential to link the web document.

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